Skip to main content

lsof command and options

lsof - list open files. An  open file may be a regular file, a directory, a block special file, a character special file, an executing text reference, a library, a stream or a network file (Internet socket, NFS file or UNIX domain socket.)  A specific file or all the files in a file system may be selected by path. Given that this command identifies which files are being used, this information can be used when disk can not be unmounted due to files being used or opened.
Type the following command:
$lsof
    lsof.png
Herein -
FD – stands for File descriptor and may have some of the values as:
  1. cwd current working directory
  2. rtd root directory
  3. txt program text (code and data)
  4. mem memory-mapped file
Also in FD column numbers like 41u is actual file descriptor and followed by u,r,w of it’s mode as:
  1. r for read access.
  2. w for write access.
  3. u for read and write access.
TYPE – of files and it’s identification.
  1. DIR – Directory
  2. REG – Regular file
  3. CHR – Character special file.
  4. FIFO – First In First Out
  5. IPv4
  6. IPv6
OPTIONS
-u s selects the listing of files for the user whose login names or user ID numbers are in the comma-separated set s -  e.g.,  ``abe'', or ``548,root''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.)
    $lsof -u tarun
-i [i] selects the listing of files any of whose Internet address matches the address specified in i. If no address is specified, this option selects the listing of all Internet and x.25 (HP-UX) network files. Following command lists all network connections listening and established -
$lsof -i
Screenshot from 2015-07-22 14:35:31.png
An Internet address is specified in the form (Items in square brackets are optional.):
[46][protocol][@hostname|hostaddr][:service|port]
    $lsof -i TCP:80
Screenshot from 2015-07-22 14:13:46.png
List running processes of open files of TCP port range from 1-800
    $lsof -i TCP:1-800
Screenshot from 2015-07-22 14:25:27.png
If -i4 or -i6 is specified with no following address, only files of the indicated IP version, IPv4 or IPv6,  are  displayed.
    $lsof -i4
    Screenshot from 2015-07-22 14:22:02.png
    $lsof -i6
Screenshot from 2015-07-22 14:22:30.png

-p s excludes or selects the listing of files for the processes  whose  optional  process  IDentification  (PID)  numbers  are  in  the comma-separated set s - e.g., ``123'' or ``123,^456''.  (There should be no spaces in the set.) PID numbers that begin with `^' (negation) represent exclusions.

        $lsof -p 2499

-t   specifies  that  lsof  should  produce  terse output with process identifiers only and no header - e.g., so that the output may be piped to kill(1)

        $lsof -p 2499

        $kill -9 `lspf -t -u tarun`

Popular posts from this blog

Verify email confirmation using Selenium

Email confirmation seems to be integral part of any registration process. I came across an application which lets you provide your email address. You can follow the sign up link in you mail and then complete the registration process. Lets consider we provide GMail address for it. Now if were to use only Selenium then we would have to follow following steps - Launch GMail using Selenium; Some how search for new mail in the list of available mails; Some how click on it; Parse the mail message; Get the registration link; Follow up with registration process What do you think of an approach in which you can

Using chrome console to test xPath and css selectors

Since the advent of selenium there have been many plugin to test xPath / css selectors but you don’t need any of them if you have chrome browser. Using Chrome console you can test both xPath and css selectors. Launch website to be tested in chrome browser and hit F-12 and you would see chrome console opened in lower pane of application - Hit escape key and console would open another pane to write element locators - And now you can start writing xPath or css selectors in chrome console and test them - The syntax for writing css id - $$(“ ”) And hit the enter key. If your expression is right then html snippet of the application element corresponding to the css selector would be displayed - If you mouse over the html snippet in chrome console then it would highlight the corresponding element in application - If you want to clean console of previously written element selectors then just hit ctrl+L keys and chrome console would be empty again. Pro

Return only first or last element from webelements collection

We often come across situation when there are multiple elements on a page and we probably like to exercise only a few of them using selenium webdriver. May be just first and last element. For example on a search result page we may like to click on only first and last link and not all. This is when Iterables API comes handy. (By the way I am assuming that you have already completed watching selenium training videos :)). Once we have collection of web element then we can use Iterables to get only first or last element as following - Consider that we fetch collection of element as - List< WebElement > webElements = getDriver().findElements(By. id ( "htmlID" ));   Now we can get the first web element from this collection as -  WebElement firstElement = Iterables. getFirst (webElements,  getDriver().findElement(By. id ( "defaultElement" )));   Herein second argument -   (getDriver().findElement(By. id ( "defaultElement" )))    in the me