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Sunday, September 25, 2016

When page object returns more than one type of page object

If have have been working with test automation then you would have probably heard of page objects. In a gist, page object provides clear separation of responsibility between who is responsible for testing (test classes) and who is responsible for services provided page (page classes). Page objects are known to return objects of same page when control retains on same page or another page object when operation on one page return object of another page. For example typing in a text box would keep control on same page (hence same page object) but submitting a form with valid data would most probably load a new page (hence a new page object).


But what if return type of Page Object is not fixed. For example for A/B variations, user may be directed to one of many possible variation of a page. Hence the resulting page is a page object but you don’t know for sure which age object. This is where java generics comes for rescue, and to be more specific generic methods.


Before delving into generic page object let’s see an example of generic method. If you have not worked with generic then java generic video tutorial will come handy.
Following example is a modified version of generic method. Let’s assume that we want to add a String element to given collection and return the modified collection. This could like as -


public Collection<String> addAndReturn(String element, Collection<String> collection) {
  collection.add(element);
  return collection;
}


But what if requirements change and we need to add Integer object to collection. Would we write another method which takes Integer argument? What if we need another method which takes a custom Object, would we write another method which takes our custom Object argument? The requirements are endless. This is when generic methods helps us achieving code reusability. We can write one generic method which takes argument of any type <T>, add it to a given collection of objects of type <T> and return the collection -


public <T> Collection<T> addAndReturn(T element, Collection<T> collection) {
  collection.add(element);
  return collection;
}


Herein <T> before the return type Collection<T> of method specifies a generic type. Notice that T is also the type of the element argument (T element) and collection argument (Collection<T> collection) of method. Now we can use this method to addAndReturn collection we want. The actual type of T is determined by the caller invoking addAndReturn method -


// add string to collection and return collection
Collection<String> stringCollection = new ArrayList<String>(Arrays.asList("a", "b","c"));
String string = "d";
System.out.println(addAndReturn(string, stringCollection));


// add int to collection and return collection
Collection<Integer> integerCollection = new ArrayList<Integer>(Arrays.asList(1, 2, 3));
int i = 4;
System.out.println(addAndReturn(i, integerCollection));


The concept of generic method can be applied to page object method as well when page object method may return a different page object -


public static <T extends PageObject> T getNewABPage() throws Exception {
  webElement.click();
  return (T) new PageObject();
}


Herein <T extends PageObject> is the generic type, which is PageObject type itself or any type which extends PageObject class in stf. You can either extend the PageObject or use object of your choice. Exact page type of page object can be derived either in test method or another page object which calls the generic page object method -


PageObject pageObject = getNewABPage();
// logic to determine exact type of page object, for ex using page title or
// element on page
// Once we know the exact page object type then down cast it to the required page object to carry out operation on required page object
((SendFeedbackPage)pageObject).enterFeedback("positive feedback");


Another example of generic page object method is when page object method is accessible from multiple pages but returns the instance of same page object on which it is called -


public static <T extends PageObject> T getSettingsPopup(T type) {
  webElement.click();
  return type;
}


And now any page can invoke settings popup and call the required operations on it


LoggedInUserHomePage loggedInUserHomePage = new LoggedInUserHomePage();
getSettingsPopup(loggedInUserHomePage).logout();

Can you think of more use cases when generic page object is useful ?

Sunday, September 18, 2016

Action and Operation APIs

If you have been following page object pattern then you would have been abstracting page level operations in its own APIs. I usually write two types of page operations -


Action API - one which are very granular and focus only on actions on one element Operation API - which can either combine various actions and constitute bigger operations or could call just one action API.


For example when clicking on a link returns a new page object then following action API illustrates it -

public MemberProfilePage clickNameLinkofFirstMember() {
linkElement.click()
return new MemberProfilePage()    
}


And Operation API could be as simple as just invoking one action API -


public MemberProfilePage acessFirstMemberProfile() {
return clickNameLinkofFirstMember()
}

Or operation API can combine various action APIs to derive a workflow -


@Test
public void shouldDsplayUpdatedNameWhenFirstNameIsChanged () {
MemberProfilePage memberProfilePage = new MemberProfilePage().changeFirstName(newName)
assert memberProfilePage.equals(newName):"Wrong member name";              
}


And the workflow can be used in automated test -


@Test
Public void shouldDsplayUpdatedNameWhenFirstNameIsChanged () {
MemberProfilePage memberProfilePage = new MemberProfilePage().changeFirstName(newName)
assert memberProfilePage.equals(newName):"Wrong member name";

}

Monday, September 12, 2016

Using JSONobject and JSONarray for parsing json

Did you ever wonder why sometimes you have json with curly brackets while sometimes with square brackets? This is because you were dealing with JSON object and arrays respectively. JSON array organizes collection of related items which can be json object in themselves -


[{"name":"item 1"},{"name": "item2} ]


JSON object usually contains key/value pair of related item. For ex -


{"name": "firstname", "dateOfBirth":"65475645"}


We used Jackson parser in API video tutorial but if you don’t need entire data set from json response of API call then you can parse the API response using JSONArray or JSONObject APIs.
you would use JSONArray to parse JSON which starts with the array brackets.  On the other hand, you would use JSONObject when dealing with JSON that begins with curly braces.


Of course, JSON arrays and objects may be nested inside one another. One common example of this is an API which returns a JSON object containing some metadata alongside an array of the items matching your query:
{"startIndex": 0, "data": [{"name":"item 1"},{"name": "item2"} ]}


We will use the json file available at - https://httpbin.org/get?show_env=1 in following example.
In case httpbin goes down in future, the same json looks as -


{
  • args:
  • {
    • show_env: "1"
  • },
  • headers:
  • {
    • Accept: "text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8",
    • Accept-Encoding: "gzip, deflate, sdch, br",
    • Accept-Language: "en-US,en;q=0.8,de;q=0.6",
    • Host: "httpbin.org",
    • Runscope-Service: "httpbin",
    • Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: "1",
    • User-Agent: "Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/50.0.2661.94 Safari/537.36",
    • X-Forwarded-For: "94.135.236.134",
    • X-Forwarded-Protocol: "https",
    • X-Forwarded-Ssl: "on",
    • X-Real-Ip: "94.135.236.134"
  • },
  • origin: "94.135.236.134",
}


We will use jersey client to get the json response -


// get JSON response
Client client = Client.create();
WebResource webResource = client.resource("https://httpbin.org/get?show_env=1");
ClientResponse clientResponse =  webResource.accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON).get(ClientResponse.class);
System.out.println(clientResponse.getStatus());
String jsonResponse = clientResponse.getEntity(String.class);
System.out.println(jsonResponse);


Since the output is json object here, we will use JSONObject to parse the response from previous example and print the data we need.
// parse JSON objects
JSONObject jsonObject = new JSONObject(jsonResponse);
System.out.println("headers are: "+jsonObject.getString("headers"));
System.out.println("origin is: "+jsonObject.getString("origin"));
System.out.println("url is: "+jsonObject.getString("url"));


I am just printing the required data points but you can use it carry assert operation to verify if data returned is valid or not.


Now let’s see an example of parsing json array. For this we would use the API call. In case the api goes down in future, this is how the response looks like -


{
  • Content-Length: "137",
  • Content-Type:
  • [
    • "application/json",
    • "text/plain; charset=UTF-8"
  • ],
  • Server: "httpbin"
}


it is a JSON object which contains “Content-Type:” array and we will print all of its values.


// get JSON response
webResource = client.resource("https://httpbin.org/response-headers?Content-Type=text%2Fplain%3B+charset%3DUTF-8&Server=httpbin");
clientResponse =  webResource.accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON).get(ClientResponse.class);
System.out.println(clientResponse.getStatus());
jsonResponse = clientResponse.getEntity(String.class);
System.out.println(jsonResponse);


// parse JSON Array
jsonObject = new JSONObject(jsonResponse);
JSONArray jsonArray = jsonObject.getJSONArray("Content-Type");
System.out.println("Content-Type json array is: "+jsonArray);


for(int index=0; index<jsonArray.length(); index++) {
  System.out.println("Content at JSON array index: "+index+", "+ jsonArray.get(index));
}

And now you can assert the JSON array data for required values.
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